Saturday, January 29, 2022

Elza Soares


Samba singer Elza Soares passed away on January 20 in Rio de Janeiro at the age of 91. She was born in 1930 in the favela of Moça Bonita (now Vila Vintem) in the neighborhood of Padre Miguel in Rio.
Elza Gomes da Conceição rose from poverty to stardom in Brazil and had a career that spanned seven decades and included 35 albums. She had a powerful, dramatic voice that she sometimes mixed with a raspy growl that earned her comparisons to Louis Armstrong. Soares explored many types of samba, as well as jazz, bossa nova, MPB, rock and electronic music. She was one of the first Brazilian singers to mix samba with scat vocals in her debut album, Se Acaso Voce Chegasse (If You Happen to Show Up). released in 1960. Soares won many honors in her lifetime, including a Latin Grammy award for Best MPB Album for Mulher do Fim do Mundo (Woman at the End of the World, 2015). She had four Latin Grammy nominations for other works. In 2016, she sang in the opening ceremonies of the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

Elza Soares in 1970.

Thursday, July 11, 2019

So Long, João Gilberto

The world lost one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century with the passing of João Gilberto do Prado Pereira de Oliveira, aka João Gilberto (1931-2019), who died on July 6. 

The Brazilian singer-guitarist was one of the leading figures of bossa nova, which became one of the world's most beloved musical styles in the 1960s, its standards widely performed and recorded by jazz and pop musicians. Gilberto invented bossa's characteristic beat and introduced its subdued vocal style. Indeed, it is quite possible the genre would never have existed without Gilberto's innovations.

Bossa nova was a new type of samba in which the genre’s rhythmic complexity was pared down to its bare essentials, transformed into a different kind of beat. It was full of unusual harmonies and syncopations, all expressed with a sophisticated simplicity. Sometimes small combos performed bossa; but it was ideally suited to a lone singer and a guitar. Thanks to Antonio Carlos Jobim, the genre's foremost songwriter, bossa also had a harmonic richness previously heard only in classical music and modern jazz. This “new fashion” or “new way” (the approximate translation of “bossa nova”) of singing, playing, and arranging songs was born in Rio de Janeiro in the mid-1950s.

Gilberto’s highly syncopated style of plucking acoustic guitar chords— nicknamed violão gago (stammering guitar) by some—introduced a type of rhythm that resembled a cooled and slowed samba but was very difficult to play. “He was the only one who could do that beat at first,” said Brazilian music critic Zuza Homem de Mello, quoted in my book The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil (co-authored with Ricardo Pessanha). “After time others could, too.”

According to guitarist-songwriter Oscar Castro-Neves in The Brazilian Sound, Gilberto’s guitar style was “a decantation of the main elements of what samba was, which made bossa nova more palatable for foreigners and the rhythm more easily perceived. He imitated a whole samba ensemble, with his thumb doing the bass drum and his fingers doing the tamborins and ganzás and agogôs. The rhythm was right there with his voice and guitar alone. You didn’t feel anything was missing.”
João’s singing was new as well. Both voice and guitar were simultaneously melodic and highly rhythmic, as he syncopated sung notes against guitar motifs. “The way he phrases is incredible,” said Castro-Neves. “The guitar would keep the tempo going and he would phrase in a way that was completely free, atop that pulsating rhythm. The way his phrases would fall—he would delay a chord here, put a note there—was very hypnotic. And he had a blend between the volume of his voice and the volume of the guitar. He could emphasize a note in the vocal and it would be like completing a chord on the guitar. Suddenly the voice really complemented the harmonic structure of the chord.”

Gilberto sang quietly, subtly, with a low-pitched, smooth, precise voice without vibrato, as if whispering an extremely intimate secret to the listener alone (Miles Davis was quoted as saying that Gilberto “would sound good reading a newspaper.”). Gilberto was not a notable songwriter, but his interpretations of Jobim's and others' songs transformed them and gave bossa nova its musical structure. 

Gilberto debuted his new guitar style in two songs on vocalist Elizeth Cardoso’s 1958 LP Canção do Amor Demais (Song for an Excessive Love), which lacked other attributes of the nascent genre, however. Then, in July, 1958, Gilberto released the first bossa-nova single, “Chega de Saudade” (written by Antonio Carlos “Tom” Jobim and Vinícius de Moraes). He followed that with the first bossa-nova album, also called Chega de Saudade, in 1959.

After Chega de Saudade, Gilberto recorded two more successful albums that were further benchmarks for the new genre: O Amor, o Sorriso e a Flor (Love, a Smile, and a Flower) in 1960 and João Gilberto in 1961. These albums included both new bossa tunes and bossa interpretations of old standards by composers like Dorival Caymmi and the sambistas Bide and Marçal.

Bossa nova reached a global audience with the soundtrack of the film Black Orpheus (in 1959) and the 1962 release of Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd's instrumental Jazz Samba album, which yielded the hit single "Desafinado." Gilberto teamed with Stan Getz and Jobim on the Grammy-winning, bestselling 1964 album Getz/Gilberto, which included "The Girl from Ipanema," which featured a vocal duet between Gilberto and his wife Astrud Gilberto. The latter was a massive worldwide hit and is now one of the most recorded songs of all time. 

João Gilberto became one of Brazil and the globe's most influential musicians over the last sixty years, with his impact on Brazilian popular music, jazz and international music. For more on Gilberto and bossa nova, please visit the bossa-nova chapter in The Brazilian Sound. The book has been quoted in various João Gilberto obituaries, including these:

by Chris McGowan and Ricardo Pessanha

The leading guide to Brazilian music in the English language is available worldwide in paperback (above) and as an updated Kindle ebook with color photos (below).


Thursday, April 4, 2019

Carnaval 2019

Rio de Janeiro's Carnival (Carnaval) in 2019,
focusing on the escolas de samba (samba schools).
Images from AFP/Getty Images and Reuters.


 Read about samba and the history of Brazil's
Carnival celebrations in The Brazilian Sound


Saturday, January 19, 2019

O Rappa Co-Founder Marcelo Yuka Has Left Us

Marcelo Yuka

R.I.P. Marcelo Yuka, one of the founders of the popular Brazilian band O Rappa, which mixed together reggae, rock, hip hop, dub and pop. Yuka (Marcelo Fontes do Nascimento Viana de Santa Ana) died of a stroke at the age of 53 in Rio de Janeiro. He was a drummer and songwriter who was renowned for his socially conscious lyrics and political activism.

In 1993, reggae musician Papa Winnie was going to play in Brazil and need a local backing band. He  picked four people -- Nelson Meirelles, Marcelo Lobato, Alexandre Menezes and Marcelo Yuka -- to perform with him. After Papa Winnie's shows were over, the four decided to stay together and they invited Marcelo Falcão to join them as their vocalist. The group debuted with the eponymous O Rappa (1994). They found success with  Rappa Mundi (1996), produced by legendary rock producer Liminha, and Lado B Lado A (1999), produced by Chico Neves except for two tracks (including the title cut) produced by Bill Laswell.

Yuka became a paraplegic after being shot in a robbery in Rio in 2000. He left O Rappa the following year, because of artistic differences with lead vocalist Marcelo Falcão (Yuka went on to form the group F.U.R.T.O. in 2004). Yuka was O Rappa's most important songwriter while with them and penned many of the group's most memorable songs, including "Todo Camburão tem um Pouco de Navio Negreiro", "Me Deixa", and "Minha Alma (A Paz que Eu Não Quero)" e "Pescador de Ilusões." O Rappa stopped performing in 2018 and has no current plans to return.

Yuka's most recent release was Canções Para Depois Do Ódio in 2017 on Sony Music.

"Minha Alma"


Friday, July 13, 2018

An Olympian Night Life: Rio de Janeiro's Top Ten Clubs for Live Music

by Chris McGowan

Rio de Janeiro has one of the most vibrant musical scenes on the planet, and includes both the incredible street celebration of Carnaval and a multitude of nightclubs for all tastes. Cariocas (natives of Rio) are generally gregarious, love music and aren’t shy about dancing, and the city’s nightlife is dynamic. Many of the hottest music spots are in the historic neighborhood of Lapa, a once neglected area that has been transformed into a musical mecca. Rio is associated with the birth of samba, choro and bossa nova, and its clubs offer lots of other styles as well.

In terms of music, there are many Brazils. Samba is the most famous musical genre and it comes in several varieties. Its infectious rhythms can make anyone get up and dance, yet one can also enjoy it in folksy pagode samba jam sessions with musicians and listeners seated around a table crowded with cold beer. For mellow evenings, there is sophisticated, subtle bossa nova (think Tom Jobim and João Gilberto), the instrumental pleasures of choro (usually played on acoustic guitar, flute and cavaquinho), and a wide spectrum of Brazilian jazz.

Exterior of Carioca da Gema, in Lapa

MPB mixed strong melodies, rich harmonies and eclectic influences beginning in the 1960s and ‘70s and is still going strong (Milton Nascimento, Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso are mainstays). A new generation of female singer-songwiters (Ana Carolina, Bebel Gilberto, Maria Rita and others) are creating much of the best MPB these days and mixing it freely with international pop.

The thundering rhythms of maracatu drums from Recife, the raucous Afro-Brazilian sounds of axé music (Ivete Sangalo, Claudia Leitte), and the playful, electronic beats of tecnobrega (Gaby Amarantos) liven up Brazilian dance floors.

You can go rural and romantic with the sertanejo genre, the local country music that is now the country’s most popular style. Or you might want to get down with funk carioca, raw and provocative dance music from the favelas, or Brazilian rap, Electro or Brazilian rock. Musically, there’s something for everyone. I give descriptions of Brazil’s different styles and leading artists in my books The Brazilian Sound (an introduction) and The Brazilian Music Book (a collection of interviews).

Here is a listing of ten memorable venues in Rio, mostly in Lapa, Centro (downtown) or the Zona Sul (South Zone). Call to confirm what style is playing and when the music starts, or ask the concierge at your hotel to call for you. The O Globo newspaper also has listings. Some clubs close on Sundays and Mondays. Most of these establishments have cover charges, usually the equivalent of U.S.$5 - $20, and expansive menus of great food.

Lapa and Centro have more than their share of crime. Take a taxi or Uber to your club and take one back to your hotel. Don’t wander far from your destination, unless you know your way around and are in a group.

Rio Scenarium
1. The picturesque Rio Scenarium has atmosphere to spare: the beautiful three-story club has exotic antiques, masks and costumes as décor. The live music features samba plus jazz and MPB. One can shake it to samba on the first floor or watch the action from a grand balcony while enjoying a potent caipirinha or cold Brazilian beer. Open Tue-Sat.
Rua do Lavradio 20, Centro (close to Lapa); 3147-9000/9001/9002 (Portuguese/English)
2. The Vinicius Show Bar is an inviting spot devoted to the sublime, mellow sounds of bossa nova and named for poet/lyricist Vinícius de Moraes, who teamed with Tom Jobim on classics such as “A Garota de Ipanema” (The Girl from Ipanema”) and helped inspire and popularize the genre. One might also hear a little MPB or samba on some nights. Open Sun-Sat.
Rua Vinícius de Moraes 39, Ipanema; 2287-1497 / 2523-4757

Carioca da Gema

3. Carioca da Gema arrived in Lapa in 2000 and helped start the revitalization of the dilapidated neighborhood. The small, intimate club boasts beautiful brickwork and a grand hardwood staircase, and hosts some of the top names in samba, as well as musicians from other genres (jazz saxophonist Léo Gandelman often teams with various vocalists). The place is packed on weekends; Monday is an especially good time to visit. Open: Mon-Sat.
Avenida Mem de Sá 79, Lapa; 2221-0043 (Portuguese)

Bip Bip

4. If you blink you might miss the tiny Bip Bip bar, which is located close to Copacabana Beach and is a fun place to catch pagode samba played casually around a table. Greats like vocalist Beth Carvalho sometimes stop by for samba on weekends. You can catch choro on Mondays and Tuesdays, and bossa nova on Wednesday night. Open most nights.
Rua Almirante Gonçalves 50, Copacabana; 2267-9696

5. Fundição Progresso is a larger space where well-known musicians play everything from MPB to rap to reggae to sertanejo.
Rua dos Arcos 24, Lapa; 3212-0800 (Portuguese)

Estudantina Musical

6. Estudantina Musical is a landmark for those who love ballroom dancing to the sounds of samba, forró and other Brazilian styles.
Praça Tiradentes 79, Centro; 2232-1149

7. Trapiche Gamboa is housed in a lovely old building and has great live samba for dancing (and occasionally choro). Open Tue-Sat.
Rua Sacadura Cabral 155, Praca Mauá; 2516-0868 (Portuguese)

8.In Clube dos Democráticos, samba fills the dance floor most nights.
founded many decades ago as a Carnaval appreciation society. Wednesday nights explore the frisky northeastern forró style. Wed-Sat from 11pm.
Rua do Riachuelo 91, Lapa; 2252-4611 (Portuguese)

Lapa 40 Graus

9. Lapa 40 Graus is a three-story club with all types of music: samba, choro, forró and sertanejo. Live music Wed-Sun.
Rua do Riachuelo 97; 3970-1338, 3970-1334 (Portuguese/English)

10. Astrophysicists who love to party or just those who like exotic nightspots should check out 00 (Zero Zero), an upscale spot housed inside Gavea’s planetarium. There’s a lounge, a dance floor and a mezzanine level where you can enjoy sushi. Live musicians and DJs play everything from samba to MPB to electro to reggae and jazz. Sunday is a gay afternoon/night. Open: Tue-Sun.
Planetário da Gavea, Avenida Padre Leonel Franca 240, Gavea; 2540-8041.

Also worth checking out:
Leviano (Lapa): electro, samba, jazz.
Saúde): no cover; samba.
Casarão Ameno Resedá
(Catete): electic. And check out the DJs here:
Casa da Matriz (Botafogo): DJs: wide mix of music.
Fosfobox (Copacabana): DJs: wide mix of music.

For more information on Brazilian music, see my books The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil (an introduction) and The Brazilian Music Book (a collection of interviews).

(originally published August 2, 2016 in The Huffington Post and updated in July, 2018).

Wednesday, July 11, 2018

Lenine Brings His Musical Bridge to Central Park

by Chris McGowan
 (published July 18, 2014 in The Huffington Post)

The Maurício de Nassau bridge in Recife is a replica of a bridge in Amsterdam and a reminder of when Holland ruled northeastern Brazil in the early 17th century. It is also the inspiration for “The Bridge” concert series featuring Brazilian singer-songwriter Lenine and Holland’s Martin Fondse Orchestra. After having toured Europe and the Americas, the show will arrive at Central Park’s Summerstage Festival in New York on July 19th.

For Lenine, crossing the bridge is a metaphor for leaving one’s proverbial island, connecting with others, and broadening one’s horizons, which he explored in the song “The Bridge” on his album O Dia Em Que Faremos Contato (The Day We Make Contact). Lenine’s songs span various musical islands and are difficult to categorize. He is at the vanguard of Brazilian rock and pop and is also an heir to the great eclectic tradition of post-bossa nova artists like Gilberto Gil, Djavan and Milton Nascimento, who established their careers in the 1960s and ‘70s. For Brazilian music fans that aren’t fond of the sertanejo, funk carioca and romantic samba that currently dominate the pop charts in that country, Lenine’s music is a welcome continuation of the work of the “MPB” generation of songwriters like Gil and Nascimento who like to blend strong melodies with rich harmonies, unexpected fusions and poetic lyrics.

Lenine’s polyglot songs seamlessly weave together rock, digital effects and the rhythms, instruments and poetic inflections of his hometown Recife. He shifts between being a lyrical, reflective troubadour and a rocker who vigorously plucks and strums an acoustic guitar, seeking a “dirty sound” full of overtones and syncopation. With the guitar, Lenine has invented a rousing funky beat that defies boundaries. Sometimes, Lenine veers into mangue beat territory with aggressive songs that mix electronic effects with strains of northeastern genres like maracatu and embolada. He may mix samples and filters with gentler folk styles. And he can evoke Peter Gabriel with soulful vocals, driving rhythms and big bass lines reminiscent of Tony Levin’s work. While Lenine carries Recife within him, he is a musical gypsy, at home in the Northeast, in Rio de Janeiro, and in foreign lands.

All the while, his lyrics are full of humanitarian sentiments and a romantic futurism informed by authors like Ray Bradbury. His words reference both contemporary reality in Brazil and images from science fiction. Lenine is a prolific songwriter whose work has been recorded by many leading Brazilian artists, a performer who frequently appears on others’ recordings, and an in-demand arranger and producer. His own albums, which he toils on for long periods, appear about every two to four years. He is a musician’s musician in Brazil and considers himself a craftsman. He is as popular in France as in Brazil and has appeared at WOMAD and many other festivals in Europe. And he has won five Latin Grammy awards.

Oswaldo Lenine Macedo Pimental was born in 1959 and grew up in Recife, the capital of Pernambuco, which is noted for many musical and cultural traditions. He was named in honor of Vladimir Lenin as his father José Geraldo Pimentel was a devoted communist who idolized the Russian revolutionary leader. José liked to stay at home listening to music rather than attending Catholic mass with his wife, and Lenine hung out with his father on Sundays and listened to Brazilian music, jazz and classical. He also absorbed Recife’s own diverse local music and—during his adolescence — heavy doses of Led Zeppelin and prog rock, Frank Zappa, and the talented musicians connected to Milton Nascimento nicknamed the Clube da Esquina (Corner Club) — and he was on his way to becoming the singular musician that he is today.

The aforementioned O Dia Que Faremos Contato (1997) was a major step in Lenine’s evolution and earned him a Prémio Sharp award in Brazil for best New MPB Artist. He also won the award for Best MPB Song for “A Ponte” (The Bridge), written with Lula Queiroga, which sets his poetry against swirls of electronic noise, contains samples of repentistas Caju and Castanha, and features a stormy chorus (“Nagô, Nagô...”) backed by distorted power chords on electric guitar. By contrast, “O Marco Marciano” (The Martian Landmark) is a contemplative tune in which Lenine doubles his falsetto eerily over a ten-string viola (a type of steel-string guitar that is a mainstay of cantoria and música caipira). The lyrics evoke Ray Bradbury’s novel The Martian Chronicles, as Lenine sings of a “history of Mars buried by the ephemeral dust from storms” and a “Martian landmark with a person’s face, with the ruins of streets and cities” visible from the moons Phobos and Deimos. Throughout the album, Lenine mixes rock and pop with strains of coco, embolada, maracatu, aboio and various audio effects.

Julieta Venegas and Lenine

Na Pressão (Under Pressure) in 1999, produced by Tom Capone and Lenine, was another strong effort, selected by André Domingues in his book Os 100 Melhores CDs da MPB (The 100 Best MPB CDs). Naná Vasconcelos, a venerable figure in modern jazz who is also from Recife, supplies most of the percussion on the album. On the title track, his talking drum, bombo turco and caxixi back Lenine’s ten-string viola, which creates a northeastern mood that turns edgy and dramatic. The reflective “Paciência” (Patience) is one of Lenine’s most beautiful songs, and “Relampiando” (Lightning Striking) is a touching piece of social criticism. “Jack Soul Brasileiro” is a rhythmic tour de force, a primer in syncopation that fuses various elements. A few seconds of maracatu rural drumming open the song, and then Lenine strums his trademark funky groove on guitar and adds incredibly rhythmic singing that summons the tongue twisting wordplay of embolada. A version with a fuller arrangement is available on his Acústico MTV album.

Lenine (left) and Cristina Braga (right)

Falange Canibal in 2001, continued Lenine’s fusion of the acoustic and the electronic, and won the Latin Grammy Award for Best Brazilian Contemporary Pop Album. Falange Canibal had more guest artists than any of his previous albums, including composer-keyboardist Eumir Deodato, members of the O Rappa and Skank bands, Frejat (of Barão Vermelho), singer-songwriter Ani DiFranco, trombonist Steve Turre, and drummer Will Calhoun and guitarist Vernon Reid from Living Colour. Lenine’s subsequent albums, such as Lenine InCité, Lenine Acústico MTV, and Labiata have won further awards. Yet such success did not lead Lenine to become a more commercial artist. Rather, in 2011, he released Chão (Ground), a beautiful, mellow, minimal album that has no percussion and incorporates ambient sounds from birdcalls to teakettles to typewriters to footsteps on gravel to heartbeats. Certainly, Lenine is taking Brazilian popular music across his metaphorical “bridge” to new horizons.

Martin Fondse (left) and Lenine (right).

Band leader Martin Fondse, who leads the orchestra appearing with Lenine, is a Dutch pianist and composer who has won awards for his orchestral work and film scores. His work mixes jazz and many other musical styles, and he has collaborated with Peter Erskine, Terry Bozzio, George Duke, Vernon Reid and Pat Metheny, among others.

There is an extended profile of Lenine and interview with him in my book The Brazilian Music Book: Brazil’s Singers, Songwriters, and Musicians Tell the Story of Bossa Nova, MPB, and Brazilian Jazz and Pop.

Gaby Amarantos: The Muse of Tecnobrega Boosts Brazil's Latest Musical Export

by Chris McGowan
(published November 9, 2011 in The Huffington Post)

 Singer Gaby Amarantos and DJ João Brasil’s tecnobrega version of Antonio Carlos Jobim’s “Águas de Março” (Waters of March) is either an innovative interpretation for the dance floor or a desecration of one of the greatest songs of the 20th century. Or both. The recording can be heard on YouTube and downloaded from numerous online stores or sites. It is an example of the dance-oriented tecnobrega style, which emerged in the last decade in Belém, the capital of Pará state in the Amazon, and is the latest Brazilian music export to enliven European clubs. It also carries the “mashup” touch of DJ João Brasil, who is from Rio and now resides in London.

Gaby with TecnoShow

Gaby (or “Gabi”) is the current “queen of tecnobrega,” being the style’s most prominent female star, and a new ambassador for her state’s regional music. She has led the band TecnoShow since 2002 and appeared on nationally popular Brazilian television shows like Domingão do Faustão. The full-figured vocalist was born in 1980 and grew up in Jurunas, a poor neighborhood on the outskirts of Bélem. Amarantos wears sexy, outlandish outfits that are surreal in a low-budget Lady Gaga way. Usually, she performs with a supporting cast of similarly clad dancers.

Jobim’s “Águas de Março” was first recorded in 1972 and is a Brazilian and global standard. The late jazz critic Leonard Feather termed it “one of the 10 most beautiful songs of the century.” Jobim and Elis Regina recorded it with an unforgettable duet on Elis & Tom (1974), often cited in polls as the most popular Brazilian album of all time. Gaby’s interpretation of “Águas de Março” is brassy and sometimes strident, and there is none of the sensitivity present in the great performances of the song. Producer DJ João Brasil’s accompaniment is stripped down, with a synthesizer that sounds like a toy keyboard (which it probably was). The samba/bossa beat is gone, replaced by tecnobrega’s simple, snappy rhythm, delivered via drum machine. Jobim’s great harmonies are mostly missing in action. “Águas de Março” is such a national classic that the tecnobrega version is almost as outrageous as when Jimi Hendrix tore up the “Star Spangled Banner” on the electric guitar at Woodstock. Defenders of the song will most likely fit it into Brazil’s Tropicalista tradition of cannibalizing musical standards and styles, and mixing erudite and popular, the high and the low brow.

Tecnobrega emerged early in the new century and is popular in the north and northeast of Brazil. Its birthplace of Belém has always been a musical world unto itself, a steamy, equatorial port city located almost 2,000 kilometers from Rio de Janeiro. Belém and nearby Marajó Island are the home of carimbó, a lively Afro-Brazilian song-and-dance form that dates back over 100 years. And lambada and its instrumental version, guitarrada, appeared there in the late 1970s. Tecnobrega’s name comes from a fusion of tecno (techno music) and brega, which means “tacky” and also refers to cheesy romantic music. In Belém, brega was embraced and eventually evolved into a style called “brega pop,” of which Banda Calypso was the most successful exponent. Tecnobrega resulted from a fusion of brega pop with electronic music. Some songs have highly accelerated tempos, reaching 170 beats per minute. DJ João Brasil has given “Águas de Março” a spare, minimalist production compared to many tecnobrega tunes, which can be bombastic. The style originally reached European dance floors in late 2009 when English DJ Lewis Robinson took tecnobrega recordings to BatMacumba club events in London’s Notting Hill.

Tecnobrega is noteworthy for having created a new musical business model, one that has gotten rid entirely of record companies and radio stations. Tecnobrega artists take advantage of cheap available technology, often using personal computers as home studios. Composers freely allow the DJs or producers to copy the music and sell it on CDs that cost as little as $1.50 apiece. The “pirates” become distributors, and the artists gain exposure (but usually zero royalties) through the distribution of their work to the public. The DJs work at huge festas de aparelhagem (sound system parties), which move from location to location, and they can turn unknown songs into instant hits. The shows can include smoke machines, laser displays and giant video screens. There are an estimated 4,000 such events per month, or more, in greater Belém.

Hitherto anonymous artists become well known overnight and can put together bands that may consist of just a keyboardist and vocalist, and go to play at the sound system events and in clubs. Musicians make their money from live performances, not from recordings, except those they sell themselves at shows. Recorded music has become a smaller share of an artist’s income in the rest of the world as well, but in Belém the transition has been greatly accelerated. The new model is so successful in Pará that tecnobrega artists release several hundred albums per year.

Whatever one thinks of tecnobrega, it is part of the ongoing fusion of electronic dance music with Brazilian styles that has also resulted in the creation of funk carioca, Brazilian hip hop, and tecnoforró. Many in Brazil find tecnobrega unmusical and unlistenable, yet many others there and overseas are dancing to it. How would Jobim have reacted to Gaby’s interpretation of “Águas de Março”? I don’t think he would have liked tecnobrega. But I’m pretty sure he would have been amused by Amarantos and pleased with the incredible diffusion of his compositions, so many decades later.

Check out these related YouTube links: Gaby Amarantos and DJ João Brasil, “Águas de Março”, Tom Jobim & Elis Regina (live), “Águas de Março” and Banda Tecno Show with Gaby Amarantos, “Principe Negro.”

My book, The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil, written with Ricardo Pessanha, is available now in print and digital editions. It discusses the music of Belém, lambada, guitarrada and tecnobrega at greater length, along with other Brazilian music genres.